Definition of kidney cancer: Cancer that forms in tissues of the kidneys. Kidney cancer includes renal cell carcinoma (cancer that forms in the lining of very small tubes in the kidney that filter the blood and remove waste products) and renal pelvis carcinoma (cancer that forms in the center of the kidney where urine collects).
Estimated new cases of kidney (renal cell and renal pelvis) cancer in the United States in 2014: 63,920
Kidney cancer incidence rates are twice as high in men as in women. American Indians/Alaska Natives have higher kidney cancer incidence rates than any other racial or ethnic group in the United States.
The main risk factors for kidney cancer are smoking, obesity, high blood pressure, and having certain inherited conditions. There are no recommended tests to screen for kidney cancer in people who are not at average risk of this disease. Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans are used to look for kidney cancer in people with an inherited condition that places them at high risk. Standard treatments for kidney cancer include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, biological therapy, and targeted therapy.
The Following Stages are Used for Renal Cell Cancer:
In stage III:
- the tumor is any size and cancer is found only in the kidney and in 1 or more nearby lymph nodes; or
- cancer is found in the main blood vessels of the kidney or in the layer of fatty tissue around the kidney. Cancer may be found in 1 or more nearby lymph nodes.
- beyond the layer of fatty tissue around the kidney and may be found in the adrenal gland above the kidney with cancer, or in nearby lymph nodes; or
- to other organs, such as the lungs, liver, bones, or brain, and may have spread to lymph nodes.
The Following Stages are Used for Transitional Cell Cancer of the Renal Pelvis and/or Ureter:
Stage 0 (Papillary Carcinoma And Carcinoma In Situ)
In stage 0, abnormal cells are found in tissue lining the inside of the renal pelvis or ureter. These abnormal cells may become cancer and spread into nearby normal tissue. Stage 0 is divided into stage 0a and stage 0is, depending on the type of tumor:
- Stage 0a may look like tiny mushrooms growing from the tissue lining the inside of the renal pelvis or ureter. Stage 0a is also called noninvasive papillary carcinoma.
- Stage 0is is a flat tumor on the tissue lining the inside of the renal pelvis or ureter. Stage 0is is also called carcinoma in situ.
- From the renal pelvis to tissue or fat in the kidney; or
- From the ureter to fat that surrounds the ureter.
- A nearby organ.
- The layer of fat surrounding the kidney.
- One or more lymph nodes.
- Distant parts of the body, such as the lung, liver, or bone.
Transitional cell cancer of the renal pelvis and ureter is also described as localized, regional, or metastatic:
The cancer has spread to other parts of the body.
All information was taken from the NCI (National Cancer Institute)